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Quarterly, Seasonally Adjusted Data
                Windsurfing at Coyote Point November 2009
  Scroll down or click =>  Graph of M1 Velocity

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Definition:  The Velocity of M1 Money Stock (M1V) is a ratio of nominal GDP to M1, a measure of the money supply. It can be thought of as the rate of turnover in the money supply--that is, the number of times one dollar is used to purchase final goods and services included in GDP.

The Velocity of M1 Money Stock is calculated as the ratio of quarterly nominal GDP to the quarterly average of M1 money stock.
  • Quarterly nominal GDP: (
  • Quarterly average of M1 money stock:  (
M1 consists of (1) currency outside the U.S. Treasury, Federal Reserve Banks, and the vaults of depository institutions; (2) traveler's checks of nonbank issuers; (3) demand deposits at commercial banks (excluding those amounts held by depository institutions, the U.S. government, and foreign banks and official institutions) less cash items in the process of collection and Federal Reserve float; and (4) other checkable deposits (OCDs), consisting of negotiable order of withdrawal (NOW) and automatic transfer service (ATS) accounts at depository institutions, credit union share draft accounts, and demand deposits at thrift institutions. Seasonally adjusted M1 is constructed by summing currency, traveler's checks, demand deposits, and OCDs, each seasonally adjusted separately. 

Graph of Velocity of M1 Money Stock (M1V)

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What it means:  From Wikipedia: If, for example, in a very small economy, a farmer and a mechanic, with just $50 between them, buy new goods and services from each other in just three transactions over the course of a year

  • Farmer spends $50 on tractor repair from mechanic.
  • Mechanic buys $40 of corn from farmer.
  • Mechanic spends $10 on barn cats from farmer.
then $100 changed hands in the course of a year, even though there is only $50 in this little economy. That $100 level is possible because each dollar was spent on new goods and services an average of twice a year, which is to say that the velocity was two per year. Note that if the farmer bought a used tractor from the mechanic or made a gift to the mechanic, it would not go into the numerator of velocity because that transaction would not be part of this tiny economy's gross domestic product.

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